Desoxyn is a stimulant drug: it increases activity in the central nervous system. It is a commercial brand, which is the main legal prescription for methamphetamine, a drug best known on the street in its crystalline form called “crystal”.
Desoxyn (methamphetamine hydrochloride) is legally manufactured and is primarily used in medicine for the treatment of ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). ADHD is a behavioral disorder that primarily affects children and is also known as ADD (attention deficit disorder). The exact causes of ADHD are not fully understood, but its main effects are an inability to concentrate, impulsive behavior, difficulty following instructions or behaving appropriately, and excessive movement. This disorder poses problems in learning, participating in activities or socializing and the resulting behavior may be perceived as disobedience or boisterousness.
ADHD is usually discovered in childhood but often persists to some extent into adulthood.
In general, this disorder has been known in some form for hundreds of years, but the term ADHD was coined in 1987. In addition, the use of stimulants to treat it has been tried long before the current terminology appeared. In 1937, an American doctor named Charles Bradley conducted a series of experiments on children with behavioral problems similar to what we would call ADHD today.
He immediately saw significant improvements in schoolwork and behavior with the use of Benzedrine, an amphetamine that was also later abused.
Desoxyn was created in 1942 by American pharmacologists and has since been used for a variety of purposes, not only as a treatment for ADHD but also as a slimming pill for very obese people and as a treatment for narcolepsy (sleep disorder) and refractory depression. It is not clear why Desoxyn works for ADHD but it has to do with the way it alters the balance of neurotransmitters in the brain.
Although Desoxyn is broadly composed of the same chemical as crystal methamphetamine (“crystal”) and its use has been controversial for this reason, there are crucial differences.
However, Desoxyn is still an addictive drug, which is potentially abused by both prescription users and “street” methamphetamine users.
Desoxyn is the brand name and pharmaceutical form of methamphetamine.
Methamphetamine is a powerful and highly addictive street drug, commonly referred to as “crystal. It is also known as crystal meth, crystal meth, ice or tina.
Although “crystal” is essentially the same chemical as Desoxyn, there are important differences.
First, Desoxyn is the pure form of methamphetamine while “crystal” contains many harmful additives and adulterants. Second, Desoxyn is produced in a safe, sterile and regulated manner by a legitimate pharmaceutical company, while “crystal” is created in clandestine home labs through various chemical processes to arrive at the finished product.
Finally, Desoxyn is delivered by prescription in controlled doses (tablets), while “crystal” is a crystalline substance that is smoked, injected or swallowed in much larger quantities.
Pharmaceutical methamphetamine was previously marketed as pervitin, methedrine, syndrox and anadrex
Desoxyn is a stimulant: it increases activity in the brain and other parts of the central nervous system.
When used for legitimate pharmaceutical and prescription purposes in the treatment of ADHD, it can improve concentration and behavior and increase attention span.
When used as a “diet pill,” Desoxyn can help patients who have difficulty losing weight in other ways by reducing their appetite and speeding up their metabolism.
Taken by prescription, it is generally effective and relatively free of significant side effects. However, its abuse potential is high and it can be highly addictive if misused, especially in people with a history of addiction.
If abused, users may take higher doses than prescribed or take it more frequently in order to experience the “high” effects of the extra dopamine sent to the brain. These people will quickly develop a tolerance to the drug and will need to take more and more of it to get the same effects, as well as becoming physically and psychologically dependent on Desoxyn.
This drug is also abused by crystal meth users for the euphoria and increased confidence it provides as well as its stimulant properties.
Methamphetamine abuse severely disrupts the balance of chemicals in the brain. Physical effects of high doses include hyperactivity, loss of appetite, abnormally high or irregular heart rate, high blood pressure and insomnia. Methamphetamine abuse also leaves sequelae such as depression, irritability, fatigue and anxiety, which in turn can lead to further abuse.
It also puts you at risk for an overdose, which can lead to a fatal heart attack. In the long term, the use of Desoxyn or other forms of methamphetamine can lead to delusional thinking, psychosis, damage to internal organs, tremors and other unpleasant physiological and psychological effects.
Desoxyn is legally manufactured in the United States by the international pharmaceutical company Lundbeck (based in Denmark) following its acquisition of the drug’s sole manufacturer, Ovation Pharmaceuticals.
The United States is also the largest consumer of this prescription drug. In some countries, Desoxyn (methamphetamine) is not legally available by prescription, while in others, its use is technically legal but the drug is not available.
In some cases, legitimate stocks of Desoxyn are diverted to the black market, particularly in the United States, through illegal means. They are stolen from pharmacies and warehouses or illegally sold or supplied by employees with access to them. These stocks of Desoxyn may then be sold on the street by traffickers along with other drugs.
Because of the ambiguity of the ADHD diagnosis, some adolescents may be able to obtain prescriptions for Desoxyn in order to abuse the drug, but many physicians are now aware of these risks. In other cases, individuals may forge prescriptions or purchase the drug from people with a prescription.
However, because the doses involved are relatively low and it is difficult to smoke, inhale or take Desoxyn to get “high”, illegally produced crystal methamphetamine (“crystal”) is the most commonly abused form of methamphetamine.
Crystal meth is often produced in makeshift labs on residential properties by chemically synthesizing various elements from readily available household products. This production is very dangerous as it is not only toxic but also extremely explosive. The drugs produced are usually toxic and full of impurities.
Crystalline methamphetamine is also manufactured by criminal organizations in much larger clandestine laboratories.
FACTS AND STATISTICS
- Desoxyn is a stimulant drug, part of the amphetamine group.
It is the pure, legal form of methamphetamine, better known on the street as “crystal.”
- Desoxyn has several legitimate pharmaceutical uses and is available by prescription in the United States. These include its use in the treatment of ADHD (Attention Deficit
- Hyperactivity Disorder), narcolepsy, extreme cases of obesity, and rare cases of refractory clinical depression.
- This drug can be very addictive and abuse is common. Therefore, it is often prescribed as a last resort.
- The most common side effects are nausea, loss of appetite, diarrhea and anxiety.
- Desoxyn was first produced in 1942 by Abbot Laboratories. In the early 21st century, the rights to manufacture the drug were acquired by Ovation Pharmaceuticals, which was acquired by Lundbeck in 2009.
- If abused, the drug can create physical and psychological dependence in the individual.
- The user will experience physical withdrawal, with unpleasant symptoms, but will feel compelled to take it, reinforcing the addiction.
- Stopping use generates a number of withdrawal effects, including mood swings, depression, fatigue, sleep disturbances, nausea and other unpleasant physiological symptoms.
- Some of these effects can last for several months after stopping.
- Desoxyn is illegal in the United States without a prescription. It is a Schedule II controlled substance. In many other countries, methamphetamine is not available by prescription and is illegal in all forms.
- Desoxyn is available by prescription in 5mg tablets.
- It is primarily used in the treatment of ADHD in children over the age of six.
- In 2009, a U.S. study on school drug use found that 1.6% of eighth graders had used some form of methamphetamine. 1% of them had used it in the previous year.
- In the same study, 2.8% of tenth graders reported having ever used methamphetamine.
- 1.6% of them had used it in the past year.
- 2.4% of high school seniors had ever used the drug. 1.2% of them had used it in the past year.
- An estimated 1.2 million Americans over the age of 12 used methamphetamine in 2008.
- Taken orally, the effects of Desoxyn can be felt within 10-20 minutes. If it is prepared to be smoked or injected, the effects are felt within seconds. The reason is that the drug gets into the bloodstream faster by these methods. Desoxyn is supposed to be taken orally, with a prescription.
- In 2010, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) reported the seizure of 2067kg of illegal methamphetamine. In 1986, this figure was only 235kg.
- According to a study conducted by KCI, a U.S. organization that fights methamphetamine, users of the drug are mainly young people. 24% of those surveyed were under the age of 18, 35% were between 18 and 23, and 19% between 23 and 30.
SIGNS OF ADDICTION
Overall, those who abuse Desoxyn can be divided into two categories. On the one hand, there are those who have been prescribed the drug for ADHD or another condition and have become addicted to it. On the other hand, there are those who use methamphetamine recreationally and have obtained it through illegal means. For the latter, Desoxyn may be an alternative to the illegally produced “crystal” in methamphetamine addiction.
For those prescribed the drug, addiction occurs when they decide to increase their dose without consulting a doctor, in response to increased tolerance. Addiction can also result from use outside of the prescription, for example, to be more alert during times of fatigue or to “get high”.
Abuse of prescription Desoxyn can be seen in a more rapid depletion of the drug supply. The user may also appear tense, anxious, depressed or exhausted when not taking the drug and alternate with periods of intense energy and euphoria after taking a high dose. They may also have trouble sleeping, lose their appetite or exhibit abnormal behaviour, including aggression.
If Desoxyn is used illegally, the person may be in possession of illegally obtained pill boxes. The person may also be in possession of “crystal”, the illegal form of methamphetamine, which is a white to brown or even yellow to orange crystalline powder. Finally, equipment for injecting or smoking the drug may be found in her belongings.
Desoxyn is a prescription drug that is highly addictive. For this reason, doctors are often reluctant to prescribe it. Addiction to this drug is physical, meaning that the body becomes accustomed to a certain amount and triggers withdrawal symptoms when that amount decreases. In addition, the body quickly develops a tolerance to the drug, which leads the individual to take more and more of it to obtain the same effects.
It also generates a psychological dependency: users who abuse it feel a strong urge to consume it regularly for its effects, even if they are aware that it does them more harm than good.
Desoxyn addiction can significantly disrupt the user’s life and well-being. The short-term effects are alternating highs (euphoria and energy boost) and lows (depression, excessive fatigue, irritability and hostility). In the long term, abuse of the drug leads to a number of adverse psychological and physiological effects, including delusional psychosis, skin disorders and general unhappiness.
Many of the adverse effects of “Crystal” are found in people using high doses of Desoxyn, since it is more or less the same chemical substance. However, not all of the effects of “crystal” are related to methamphetamine, as some are due to the large amount of impurities in the street drug or the way it is administered (smoked, inhaled or injected).
Addiction to methamphetamine in any of these forms is very serious, but the individuals involved can be treated and cured. The exact procedure must be decided by a practitioner experienced in detoxification, in agreement with the individual, and will depend very much on the level and nature of the addiction.
Because methamphetamine is so addictive, it can be very difficult to recover without professional help and support. In some cases, the best solution is to enter a detox center for an extended period of time, and in others, outpatient treatment is sufficient.
The first priority will be to treat the withdrawal effects of quitting. The intensity of these effects will depend on the level of addiction and the dose usually taken, but they include fatigue, depression, insomnia, psychosis, paranoia and a number of physiological effects that can be dangerous without supervision. The individual may also have suicidal thoughts.
During this first phase of detoxification, the patient may be prescribed medication to help alleviate the effects of withdrawal and to help him or her manage it. In addition, close monitoring, support and therapy are often offered. A multi-faceted approach, addressing each level of addiction, can help prevent relapse and restore mental and physical balance. In addition, support groups composed of similar cases are often recommended.
Finally, if drug use has created psychiatric disorders and paranoid delusions, more specialized psychological treatment may be necessary.